Impact of an Extended Telemonitoring and Coaching Program on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence

Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2022 Dec;19(12):2070-2076. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202204-310OC.


Rationale: The benefits of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea are limited by adherence. Telemonitoring and coaching have been demonstrated to increase adherence, but the ideal duration of such support is unclear. Objectives: To compare the impact of a 12-month versus a 3-month behavioral support program on CPAP adherence. Methods: We evaluated real-world CPAP adherence data from all patients initiating CPAP between July 1, 2018, and April 1, 2020, by any durable medical equipment (DME) providers who had used a 12-month commercially available telemonitoring/coaching program (Long Term Adherence Management, Philips Respironics) in this timeframe. Patients receiving either 12 months or 3 months of support (Patient Adherence Management Service) were compared with those initiated on CPAP without support. Mean CPAP adherence was computed monthly over the initial 18 months. Missing usage was imputed as zero use. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and DME provider. Results: The nine DME providers using the 12-month telemonitoring/coaching service cared for a total of 26,489 patients (3,264 receiving 12-month support, 15,424 receiving 3-month support, and 7,801 receiving no support) in the timeframe under study. In adjusted analyses, mean CPAP use in the 3-month support group was greater than the no support group in Month 3 (4.6 h vs. 4.3 h; P < 0.001) but subsequently, usage declined to match the no support group at both Month 12 and Month 18. In contrast, mean CPAP use was greater in the 12-month support group than in the no support group at Month 3 (4.6 h vs. 4.3 h; P < 0.001), Month 12 (4.0 h vs. 3.6 h; P < 0.001), and Month 18 (3.3 h vs. 3.2 h; P = 0.02). Conclusions: A 3-month telemonitoring/coaching program increases CPAP use in the short term but does not lead to sustained improvements. In contrast, a 12-month program leads to sustained improvements but results still diminish once coaching ceases. Implementation of longer-term telemonitoring and coaching programs may be vital to obtaining long-term benefits from CPAP therapy.

Keywords: CPAP; adherence; behavioral intervention; obstructive sleep apnea; telemonitoring.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure / methods
  • Humans
  • Mentoring*
  • Patient Compliance
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / therapy