Introduction: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) can be concurrent diseases. We aimed to estimate the point-prevalence of concurrent GCA and PMR. Additionally, an incidence rate (IR) of GCA presenting after PMR diagnosis in patients was estimated.
Methods: Two authors performed a systematic literature search, data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently. Studies assessing cohorts of patients presenting with both GCA and PMR were included. The outcomes were point-prevalence of concurrent GCA and PMR and IR for development of GCA after PMR diagnosis. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate a pooled prevalence of concurrent PMR and GCA.
Results: We identified 29 studies investigating concurrent GCA and PMR. Only two studies applied imaging systematically to diagnose GCA and none to diagnose PMR. GCA presenting after PMR diagnosis was assessed in 12 studies but imaging was not applied systematically. The point-prevalence of concurrent GCA present at PMR diagnosis ranged from 6%-66%. The pooled estimate of the point-prevalence from the meta-analysis was 22%. The point-prevalence of PMR present at GCA diagnosis ranged from 16%-65%. The pooled estimate of the point-prevalence from the meta-analysis was 42%. The IR ranged between 2-78 cases of GCA presenting after PMR per 1000 person-years.
Conclusion: This review and meta-analysis support that concurrent GCA and PMR is frequently present at the time of diagnosis. Additionally, we present the current evidence of GCA presenting in patients after PMR diagnosis. These results emphasize the need for studies applying imaging modalities to diagnose GCA.
Keywords: Giant cell arthritis; PET-CT; Polymyalgia rheumatica; Prevalence; Ultrasound.
Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.