Stress-induced perturbations in intracellular amino acids reprogram mRNA translation in osmoadaptation independently of the ISR

Cell Rep. 2022 Jul 19;40(3):111092. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111092.


The integrated stress response (ISR) plays a pivotal role in adaptation of translation machinery to cellular stress. Here, we demonstrate an ISR-independent osmoadaptation mechanism involving reprogramming of translation via coordinated but independent actions of mTOR and plasma membrane amino acid transporter SNAT2. This biphasic response entails reduced global protein synthesis and mTOR signaling followed by translation of SNAT2. Induction of SNAT2 leads to accumulation of amino acids and reactivation of mTOR and global protein synthesis, paralleled by partial reversal of the early-phase, stress-induced translatome. We propose SNAT2 functions as a molecular switch between inhibition of protein synthesis and establishment of an osmoadaptive translation program involving the formation of cytoplasmic condensates of SNAT2-regulated RNA-binding proteins DDX3X and FUS. In summary, we define key roles of SNAT2 in osmotolerance.

Keywords: CP: Molecular biology; amino acids; cytoplasmic condensates; hypertonic stress; mTOR signaling; osmolytes; osmotolerance; translation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Transport System A* / genetics
  • Amino Acid Transport System A* / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems / metabolism
  • Amino Acids* / metabolism
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism


  • Amino Acid Transport System A
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems
  • Amino Acids
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases