Routine Maternal Vaccine Uptake during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Am J Perinatol. 2022 Sep 29. doi: 10.1055/a-1905-4966. Online ahead of print.


Objective: This study examines the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine uptake in a pregnant, low-income population.

Study design: This retrospective cohort study included women initiating prenatal care before (May-November 2019) or during the COVID-19 pandemic (May-November 2020) at two large Medicaid clinics. All patients entered prenatal care before 20 weeks and delivered full-term. Medical records were reviewed for vaccine uptake and demographic data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to compare vaccination rates prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional analysis was performed to identify association of demographic factors with vaccine uptake. IRB approval was obtained for this study.

Results: A total of 939 patients met inclusion criteria, with 462 initiating care prior to and 477 initiating care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Influenza vaccination uptake was 78% (362/462) in the prepandemic group, significantly decreasing to 61% (291/477) in the pandemic group (p <0.01, odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.53). Tdap vaccination uptake was 85% (392/462) in the prepandemic group, significantly decreasing to 76% (361/477) in the pandemic group (p <0.01, OR = 0.56, CI: 0.40-0.79). The decrease in influenza vaccine uptake was most significant in non-Hispanic Black patients, decreasing from 64% (73/114) in the prepandemic group to 35% (35/101) in the pandemic group (p <0.01, OR = 0.30, CI: 0.17-0.52), while there was no significant difference in age or parity in relation to vaccination status.

Conclusion: Routine vaccination uptake significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic in a low-income population of pregnant women, with decrease more pronounced on influenza vaccine than on Tdap vaccine uptake, especially in non-Hispanic Black patients.

Key points: · Influenza and Tdap vaccination uptake during pregnancy has decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic.. · Influenza vaccine uptake decreased more than Tdap in pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic.. · The greatest decrease was seen in influenza vaccine uptake in non-Hispanic Black patients..