Centrality and interhemispheric coordination are related to different clinical/behavioral factors in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study

Brain Imaging Behav. 2022 Jul 21. doi: 10.1007/s11682-022-00708-8. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Eigenvector-Centrality (EC) has shown promising results in the field of Psychiatry, with early results also pertaining to ADHD. Parallel efforts have focused on the description of aberrant interhemispheric coordination in ADHD, as measured by Voxel-Mirrored-Homotopic-Connectivity (VMHC), with early evidence of altered Resting-State fMRI. A sample was collected from the ADHD200-NYU initiative: 86 neurotypicals and 89 participants with ADHD between 7 and 18 years old were included after quality control for motion. After preprocessing, voxel-wise EC and VMHC values between diagnostic groups were compared, and network-level values from 15 functional networks extracted. Age, ADHD severity (Connor's Parent Rating-Scale), IQ (Wechsler-Abbreviated-Scale), and right-hand dominance were correlated with EC/VMHC values in the whole sample and within groups, both at the voxel-wise and network-level. Motion was controlled by censoring time-points with Framewise-Displacement > 0.5 mm, as well as controlling for group differences in mean Framewise-Displacement values. EC was significantly higher in ADHD compared to neurotypicals in the left inferior Frontal lobe, Lingual gyri, Peri-Calcarine cortex, superior and middle Occipital lobes, right inferior Occipital lobe, right middle Temporal gyrus, Fusiform gyri, bilateral Cuneus, right Precuneus, and Cerebellum (FDR-corrected-p = 0.05). No differences were observed between groups in voxel-wise VMHC. EC was positively correlated with ADHD severity scores at the network level (at p-value < 0.01, Inattentive: Cerebellum rho = 0.273; Hyper/Impulsive: High-Visual Network rho = 0.242, Cerebellum rho = 0.273; Global Index Severity: High-Visual Network rho = 0.241, Cerebellum rho = 0.293). No differences were observed between groups for motion (p = 0.443). While EC was more related to ADHD psychopathology, VMHC was consistently and negatively correlated with age across all networks.

Keywords: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Brain development; Eigenvector Centrality (EC); Resting-state fMRI; Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity (VMHC).