Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that retarget T cells against CD19 show clinical efficacy against B cell malignancies. Here, we describe the development of a CAR against the six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate-1 (STEAP1), which is expressed in ∼90% of prostate cancers, and subgroups of other malignancies. STEAP1 is an attractive target, as it is associated with tumor invasiveness and progression and only expressed at low levels in normal tissues, apart from the non-vital prostate gland. We identified the antibody coding sequences from a hybridoma and designed a CAR that is efficiently expressed in primary T cells. The T cells acquired the desired anti-STEAP1 specificity, with a polyfunctional response including production of multiple cytokines, proliferation, and the killing of cancer cells. The response was observed for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and against all STEAP1+ target cell lines tested. We evaluated the in vivo CAR T activity in both subcutaneous and metastatic xenograft mouse models of prostate cancer. Here, the CAR T cells infiltrated tumors and significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended survival in a STEAP1-dependent manner. We conclude that the STEAP1 CAR exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo functionality and can be further developed toward potential clinical use.
Keywords: CAR T cell; STEAP1; cancer immunotherapy; cell therapy; chimeric antigen receptor; metastatic cancer mouse model; prostate cancer.
© 2022 The Author(s).