Florigen repression complexes involving rice CENTRORADIALIS2 regulate grain size

Plant Physiol. 2022 Sep 28;190(2):1260-1274. doi: 10.1093/plphys/kiac338.


Grain size is one of the crucial factors determining grain yield. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of florigen repression complexes (FRCs) underlying grain size in rice (Oryza sativa L.) have not been reported. Here, we report that the rice CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) family member OsCEN2 (also known as Rice TFL1/CEN homolog, RCN1), a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family protein, negatively controls grain size in rice. Overexpression of OsCEN2 led to small grains, and knockout of OsCEN2 resulted in large, heavy grains. OsCEN2 influenced grain size by restricting cell expansion in the spikelet hull and seed filling. In in vivo and in vitro experiments, OsCEN2 physically interacted with a G-box factor 14-3-3 homolog, GF14f, which negatively regulates grain size. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that GF14f directly interacts with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, OsFD2. Plants overexpressing OsFD2 produced smaller and lighter grains than wild-type plants. We found that OsFD2 also influences grain size by controlling cell expansion and division in the spikelet hull. Our results reveal the molecular mechanisms of the OsCEN2-GF14f-OsFD2 regulatory module in controlling grain size. Additionally, our study provides insight into the functions of the FRC in rice and suggests a strategy for improving seed size and weight.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Edible Grain / genetics
  • Edible Grain / metabolism
  • Florigen / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Oryza* / metabolism
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Florigen
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors