TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25: Not just for allergy and helminth infection

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Dec;150(6):1302-1313. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2022.07.003. Epub 2022 Jul 19.


The release of cytokines from epithelial and stromal cells is critical for the initiation and maintenance of tissue immunity. Three such cytokines, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-33, and IL-25, are important regulators of type 2 immune responses triggered by parasitic worms and allergens. In particular, these cytokines activate group 2 innate lymphoid cells, TH2 cells, and myeloid cells, which drive hallmarks of type 2 immunity. However, emerging data indicate that these tissue-associated cytokines are not only involved in canonical type 2 responses but are also important in the context of viral infections, cancer, and even homeostasis. Here, we provide a brief review of the roles of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-33, and IL-25 in diverse immune contexts, while highlighting their relative contributions in tissue-specific responses. We also emphasize a biologically motivated framework for thinking about the integration of multiple immune signals, including the 3 featured in this review.

Keywords: Cytokines; allergy; cancer; helminth; tissue immunity; viral infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Helminthiasis* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity* / immunology
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Interleukin-17*
  • Interleukin-33*
  • Lymphocytes
  • Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin*


  • Interleukin-33
  • IL25 protein, human
  • TSLP protein, human
  • Interleukin-17
  • Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin