Malignant testicular tumors in children: A single institution's 12-year experience

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Jul 22;101(29):e29735. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000029735.


Testicular neoplasms are not commonly found in children and are a formidable threat if treated inappropriately. However, there is no consensus regarding its management. This study aimed to create a holistic picture of the interprofessional team in the management of malignant testicular tumors. Seventeen patients had mixed germ cell tumors, 15 had pure yolk sac tumors, 2 had immature teratomas, 2 had teratocarcinomas, and 1 had a sex cord stromal tumor. Five lesions were diagnosed as nongerm cell tumors: 2 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 lymphomas, and 1 acute myeloid leukemia. At initial presentation, retroperitoneal (n = 2), bone marrow (n =1), and mediastinal (n = 1) metastases were identified in 4 (10%) patients. The operative interventions performed included radical inguinal orchiectomy (n = 5), scrotal orchiectomy (n = 31), and testicular biopsy or testis-sparing enucleation of the tumor (n = 6). Postoperatively, 18 patients received either adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 14) or chemoradiation (n = 5). Five patients with mixed germ cell tumors (n = 2), group IV paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2), and acute myeloid leukemia with myeloid sarcoma (n =1) died of disease progression. Thirty-six patients remained alive and disease-free at the last visit. Malignant testicular tumors in children deserve proper diagnostic support from a therapeutic perspective. Any concern or suspicion of a testicular tumor warrants an inguinal approach to avoid scrotal violation.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Endodermal Sinus Tumor*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / surgery
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / therapy
  • Orchiectomy
  • Teratoma* / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / therapy