Lyme Neuroborreliosis with Intracranial Hypertension and Erythema Multiforme: A Rare Presentation

J Trop Pediatr. 2022 Jun 6;68(4):fmac060. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmac060.


A 9-year-old previously healthy boy presented with high-grade intermittent fever, severe headache associated with neck stiffness for 5 days, rash over trunk and extremities for 4 days, vomiting for 3 days and diplopia for 2 days. There was no history of seizures, abnormal body movements, altered sensorium or focal deficits. On examination, he had maculopapular erythematous rashes over the trunk and extremities and erythema multiforme. He had bilateral abducens nerve palsy and the rest of the cranial nerve, sensory and motor examination was normal. He had neck stiffness and positive Kernig's sign. Fundus examination showed grade 4 papilledema. Cerebrospinal fluid workup revealed elevated opening pressure, lymphocytic pleocytosis, normal protein and glucose levels. Neuroimaging showed features suggestive of intracranial hypertension. Borrelia IgM and IgG antibodies came positive. The uniqueness of our case lies with two rare presenting manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis in the same child.

Keywords: LD-induced intracranial hypertension; Lyme disease; Lyme neuroborreliosis; children; erythema multiforme.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Borrelia*
  • Child
  • Erythema Multiforme* / complications
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Hypertension* / complications
  • Leukocytosis
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis* / complications
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis* / diagnosis
  • Lyme Neuroborreliosis* / drug therapy
  • Male