Long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema management: Current practices in France and unmet needs

Allergy Asthma Proc. 2022 Sep 22;43(5):406-412. doi: 10.2500/aap.2022.43.220046. Epub 2022 Jul 22.


Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by unpredictable and potentially life-threatening attacks of cutaneous and submucosal swelling. Over the past decade, new agents, based on a better understanding of the underlying biologic mechanisms of HAE, have changed the face of long-term prophylaxis (LTP). Objective: The objective was to describe current practices and unmet needs with regard to LTP for HAE in expert centers in France. Methods: The study was conducted in France in 2020. Based on their experience with patients with HAE who had visited their center at least once in the past 3 years, physicians from 25 centers who are expert in the management of HAE were requested to fill in a questionnaire that encapsulated their active patient list, criteria for prescribing LTP, and medications used. They were asked about potential unmet needs with currently available therapies. They were asked to express their expectations with regard to the future of HAE management. Results: Analysis was restricted to 20 centers that had an active patient file and agreed to participate. There were 714 patients with C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, of whom 423 (59.2%) were treated with LTP. Altered quality of life triggered the decision to start LTP, as did the frequency and severity of attacks. Ongoing LTP included androgens (28.4%), progestins (25.8%), lanadelumab (25.3%), tranexamic acid (14.2%), intravenous C1-INHs (5.6%), and recombinant C1-INH (0.7%). Twenty-nine percent of the patents with LTP were considered to still have unmet needs. Physicians' concerns varied among therapies: poor tolerability for androgens and progestins, a lack of efficacy for tranexamic acid and progestins, dosage form, and high costs for C1-INHs and lanadelumab. Physicians' expectations encompassed more-efficacious and better-tolerated medications, easier treatment administration for the sake of improved quality of life of patients, and less-expensive therapies. Conclusion: Despite the recent enrichment of the therapeutic armamentarium for LTP, physicians still expressed unmet needs with currently available therapies.

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / therapeutic use
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / drug therapy
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / prevention & control
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Progestins / therapeutic use
  • Quality of Life
  • Tranexamic Acid* / therapeutic use


  • Androgens
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein
  • Progestins
  • Tranexamic Acid