Current and future therapies for haemophilia-Beyond factor replacement therapies

Br J Haematol. 2023 Jan;200(1):23-34. doi: 10.1111/bjh.18379. Epub 2022 Jul 23.


Some non-factor products that work by facilitating the coagulation pathway (emicizumab) and blocking the anticoagulant pathway (fitusiran, concizumab and marstacimab) for patients with haemophilia (H) have been developed, and clinical trials using these products are currently ongoing. Prophylaxis using non-factor products by subcutaneous administration provides marked reductions of bleeding episodes in patients with HA or HB, regardless of the presence of inhibitor. Emicizumab has already been approved globally. Emicizumab alters the phenotype of patients with HA from severe to mild by maintaining trough levels of equivalent factor VIII activity (15-20 iu/dl). Phase 3 clinical trials and long-term observations assessing emicizumab revealed tolerable safety and efficacy. However, thrombotic events have occurred in patients receiving these non-factor products. Furthermore, monitoring of the haemostatic function of these products with concomitant therapy is also required in clinical practice. These products have promising haemostatic efficiency, but wider clinical experience is needed to provide optimal therapeutic strategies in the future.

Keywords: bispecific antibody; haemophilia; inhibitor; non-factor products; rebalancing therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Bispecific*
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Factor VIII / therapeutic use
  • Hemophilia A* / complications
  • Hemostasis
  • Hemostatics* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Sex Chromosome Disorders* / complications


  • Factor VIII
  • Hemostatics
  • Antibodies, Bispecific