Acute ambulatory blood pressure response to short-term black carbon exposure: The MobiliSense sensor-based study

Sci Total Environ. 2022 Nov 10;846:157350. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157350. Epub 2022 Jul 20.


Documented relationships between black carbon (BC) exposure and blood pressure (BP) have been inconsistent. Very few studies measured both BC exposure and ambulatory BP across the multiple daily environments visited in the general population, and none adjusted for personal noise exposure, a major confounder. Our study addresses these gaps by considering 245 adults living in the Grand Paris region. Personal exposure to BC was monitored for 2 days using AE51 microaethalometers. Ambulatory BP was measured every 30 min after waking up using Arteriograph 24 monitors (n = 6772). Mixed effect models with a random intercept at the individual level and time-autocorrelation structure adjusted for personal noise exposure were used to evaluate the associations between BC exposure (averaged from 5 min to 1 h before each BP measurement) and BP. To increase the robustness of findings, we eliminated confounding by unmeasured time-invariant personal variables, by modelling the associations with fixed-effect models. All models were adjusted for potential confounders and short-term time trends. Results from mixed models show that a 1-μg/m3 increase in 5-minute averaged BC exposure was associated with an increase of 0.57 mmHg in ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) (95 % CI: 0.30, 0.83) and with an increase of 0.36 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (95 % CI: 0.14, 0.58). The slope of the exposure-response relationship gradually decreased for both SBP and DBP with the increase in the averaging period of BC exposure from 5 min to 1 h preceding each BP measurement. Findings from the fixed-effect models were consistent with these results. There was no effect modification by noise in the associations, across all exposure windows. We found evidence of a relationship between BC exposure and acute increase in ambulatory SBP and DBP after adjustment for personal noise exposure, with potential implications for the development of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Keywords: Air pollution; Ambulatory blood pressure; Mobility survey; Sensors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Carbon
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / chemically induced
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Soot / toxicity


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter
  • Soot
  • Carbon