Difficulties with Activities of Daily Living and Receipt of Care Among Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: Differences Between Those Living Alone and Those Living with Others

J Alzheimers Dis. 2022;89(1):31-37. doi: 10.3233/JAD-220172.


We compared the prevalence of reporting difficulty with basic and instrumental activities of daily living without help received for persons with cognitive impairment living alone versus those living with others. We used data on 13,782 community-dwelling participants aged 55+ with cognitive impairment in the Health and Retirement Study (2000-2016). Models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Among cognitively impaired older adults, those living alone were more likely to report difficulty without help received than those living with others. Results were similar by gender and race/ethnicity. Providers and policymakers might focus their efforts on ensuring the adequate provision of home and community-based services for older adults living alone with cognitive impairment.

Keywords: Aging in place; cognitive impairment; disability; living arrangement; racial/ethnic disparity.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living* / psychology
  • Aged
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / epidemiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / therapy
  • Home Environment
  • Humans
  • Independent Living / psychology
  • Prevalence