Neuromodulation technology is one of the medical fields currently experiencing the most rapid development, witnessing a surge in the types of modulation techniques and a constant expansion of indications. Consequently, hundreds of thousands of patients with functional neurological disorders have benefited from the advancements in the field all over the world. Nevertheless, some challenges remain, for exmaple, the lack of a thorough understanding of the mechanism of neuromodulation, the long-standing controversy over the optimal targets of neuromodulation, the lack of reliable efficacy predictors, and the cumbersome and inefficient mode of postoperative programming. We anticipate that these issues will be resolved with the continued advancement in medical technology and the gradual revelation of the neural network mechanism of brain disorders. More individualized, precise, and intelligent neuromodulation technology will be the main direction of development in the future. Herein, we reviewed and commented on the evolution of neuromodulation technology, the current status of its applications, and its prospective development.
Keywords: Brain disorder; Deep brain stimulation; Neuromodulation; Spinal cord stimulation; Vagus nerve stimulation.
Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Sciences).