Transcatheter Mitral Valve Interventions for Mitral Regurgitation: A Review of Mitral Annuloplasty, Valve Replacement, and Chordal Repair Devices

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Oct;36(10):3887-3903. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2022.05.005. Epub 2022 May 8.


Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common valvular disease in the United States in patients older than 75. However, many patients with severe MR are at a high risk for surgical repair due to other significant comorbidities. Over the past decade, many transcatheter mitral valve devices have been studied that address the different mechanisms of MR, but only a few have received a Conformité Européene (CE) mark or United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The Carillon, Cardioband, and Mitralign all received CE marking for percutaneous mitral annuloplasty, while the Tendyne and SAPIEN 3 received a CE mark and FDA approval, respectively, for transcatheter mitral valve replacement. Finally, the NeoChord DS 1000 received a CE mark for transcatheter chordal repair. Each of these devices is reviewed in detail, including device indications, performance in clinical trials, anesthetic management, intraprocedural imaging guidance, and postprocedural complications. Although percutaneous devices will appear and disappear from use, understanding the procedural considerations remains highly relevant, as these key principles will apply to the next generation of transcatheter valve interventions.

Keywords: Cardioband; Carillon; Mitralign; NeoChord; Sapien 3; Tendyne.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Mitral Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve / surgery
  • Mitral Valve Annuloplasty* / methods
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome