Objectives: To evaluate the treatment effects and post-treatment stability of the maxillary total arch distalization using TADs during the non-extraction treatment of class II malocclusions.
Materials and methods: Study involved an electronic search followed by hand searching for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies about maxillary total arch distalization using TADs. After data extraction and risk of bias assessment, meta-analysis was performed for dental, skeletal and soft tissue changes using the Generic-inverse variance approach by use of the mean difference and random-effect model.
Results: In total, 1788 articles were identified, 88 full texts were screened and 22 studies were found eligible; 17 of them were included in the quantitative analysis. The means of distalization/distal tipping of the maxillary first molar were 4mm/3.17° in adults, 3.95mm/1.61° in adolescents after treatment with the Modified C-Palatal plate (MCPP), while they were 2.44mm/2.91° with the inter-radicular mini-screws. Both MCPP's treatment in adults and inter-radicular mini-screws resulted in significant intrusion of U6 (1.64 and 0.75mm, respectively), while insignificant extrusion of U6 was resulted in adolescents treated by MCPP. MCPP appliances resulted in palatal inclination/extrusion of maxillary incisors U1 (6.77°/2mm in adults, 7.46°/3.14mm in adolescents). In contrast, inter-radicular mini-screws resulted in less palatal less amount of palatal inclination/insignificant intrusion of U1 (2.42°/0.14mm). MCPP treatment also resulted in significant changes in the skeletal measurements (SNA, ANB, occlusal and mandibular planes). Insignificant differences were found between subgroups in the retraction amount of maxillary incisors, as well as the upper and lower lips. In the follow-up of adolescents treated with MCPP, a significant amount of mesial movement, mesial tipping, and extrusion (2.94mm, 2.84°, and 3.94mm, respectively) was found. However, skeletal and occlusal corrections of the Class II relationship were maintained.
Conclusions: Maxillary total arch distalization using TADs can be an effective and stable treatment procedure. However, RCTs or prospective cohort studies are highly recommended to establish a clinical evidence regarding their efficiency.
Keywords: Angle Class II/therapy; Distalization; Malocclusion; Meta-analysis; Mini-screws; Modified C palatal plate; Orthodontic appliance design; Systematic review; Tooth movement techniques.
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