In light of the significant clinical benefits of novel HER2-targeting antibody-drug conjugates in advanced HER2-low expressing breast cancers in recent phases I and III clinical trials, particularly trastuzumab-deruxtecan (T-Dxd), the new "HER2-low" category in breast cancers (breast cancer with a HER2 IHC score of 1+, or 2+ without gene amplification) has gained increasing attention. In the past year, "HER2-low" breast cancers have been under active investigation by both oncologists and pathologists. In this current review, we update the recent cutting-edge research on HER2-low breast cancers, with a focus on the biology of HER2-low breast cancers, the issues on the identification of HER2-low breast cancers by immunohistochemistry in current practice of pathology, and the future directions in this emerging category in breast cancers.
Keywords: Biology; Breast cancer; HER2; HER2-low; Pathology; T-Dxd; Trastuzumab-deruxtecan.
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