Asthma, as a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways, has a considerable prevalence among children. Vitamin D might play a role in asthma pathogenesis by affecting the development of the lung, regulating the immune responses, and remodeling of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Study results on the association between the serum level of vitamin D and asthma severity have suggested a converse relationship between lower vitamin D levels and more severe clinical courses. However, they are not consistent in these findings and have shown insignificant correlations, as well. The possible effects of vitamin D on asthma have led researchers to consider this vitamin a potential prophylactic and therapeutic tool for managing children with variant degrees of asthma. Adding vitamin D to the routine corticosteroid therapy of asthmatic children is another field of interest that has shown promising results. In this narrative review study, we aim to elaborate on the existing knowledge on the role of vitamin D in asthma pathogenesis and prognosis, explain the controversies that exist on the effectiveness of treating patients with vitamin D supplements, and make a general conclusion about how vitamin D actually is linked to asthma in children.
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