Long COVID and its Management

Int J Biol Sci. 2022 Jul 11;18(12):4768-4780. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.75056. eCollection 2022.


The pandemic of COVID-19 is the biggest public health crisis in 21st Century. Besides the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term health complications associated with COVID-19, commonly known as long COVID. While health professionals work hard to find proper treatments, large amount of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years. In order to deal with long COVID efficiently, it is important for people to keep up with current progresses and take proactive actions on long COVID. For this purpose, this review will first introduce the general background of long COVID, and then discuss its risk factors, diagnostic indicators and management strategies. This review will serve as a useful resource for people to understand and prepare for long COVID that will be with us in the foreseeable future.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS; SARS-CoV-2; drug repurposing; long COVID; management; post-acute COVID syndrome (PACS); post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC); risk factor; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • SARS-CoV-2