Diabetes, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus influence hypertension risk differently in cohorts of haemophilia patients, veterans and the general population

Haemophilia. 2022 Nov;28(6):e228-e236. doi: 10.1111/hae.14637. Epub 2022 Jul 25.


Introduction: The reasons for the high prevalence of hypertension in persons with haemophilia (PWH) are poorly understood.

Aim: To examine the roles of diabetes, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the etiology of hypertension for PWH.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional design. Adult PWH (n = 691) were divided into two groups: (A) free of diabetes, HCV and HIV; (B) with diabetes and/or HCV positivity and/or HIV positivity. Each group was matched by race and age with random samples from the general population of the US (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, NHANES) and outpatients at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) in San Diego. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were fitted for graphical analysis of hypertension risk over the lifespan.

Results: In Group A, PWH had the highest prevalence of hypertension compared to NHANES and VAMC, especially in young adults. In Group B, diabetes increased the risk of hypertension for all three cohorts (PWH, NHANES and VAMC), especially for PWH. In PWH, hypertension risk was also increased by HIV, in NHANES by HCV, and in VAMC by HCV and HIV.

Conclusion: Diabetes conferred the greatest risk of hypertension for all three cohorts. However, curves of hypertension in relation to age revealed that diabetes, HCV and HIV modulated hypertension risk differently in PWH. PWH experienced a disproportionally high risk increase with diabetes. Therefore, haemophilia care should include screening for hypertension and diabetes at a young age.

Keywords: NHANES; diabetes; haemophilia; hepatitis C; human immunodeficiency virus; hypertension; veterans affairs.

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • HIV
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Hemophilia A* / complications
  • Hemophilia A* / epidemiology
  • Hepacivirus
  • Hepatitis C* / complications
  • Hepatitis C* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Veterans*
  • Young Adult