Undergrowth Of First Toe In PiK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)

Ann Vasc Surg. 2023 Jan:88:233-238. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2022.06.097. Epub 2022 Jul 22.


Background: PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome (PROS) include a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by segmental overgrowth secondary to somatic mosaic activating variants in PIK3CA. Segmental undergrowth is more uncommon and has been less studied but pathogenic variants in PIK3CA have also been found. With this in mind, we have noticed a group of patients with PROS that present an undergrowth component associated with their focal overgrowth.

Methods: Retrospective review of patients with PROS presenting overgrowth of the lower limb and undergrowth of the ipsilateral first toe was performed.

Results: Six patients were included, 4 female and 2 male with a median age of 16.8 years. All patients presented a PROS phenotype with overgrowth of the lower limb and undergrowth of ipsilateral first toe. A PIK3CA pathogenic variant was confirmed in all patients. Patients underwent multiple treatments, currently all are receiving alpelisib with a mean duration of 15.8 months (1-39) and partial response in lipomatosis and vascular anomalies but no response in overgrowth and undergrowth so far.

Conclusions: Pathogenic variants in the same gene can create different phenotypes depending on the time and place of the mutation. There is little information regarding opposing phenotpyes in the same patient with PROS. The presence of undergrowth in our series might be explained by genetic, embryogenic, maternal, or placental factors but needs to be further investigated.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Female
  • Growth Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Growth Disorders* / genetics
  • Growth Disorders* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Toes* / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • PIK3CA protein, human