Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and Triglycerides-Glucose index among Indian adolescents

BMC Nutr. 2022 Jul 25;8(1):69. doi: 10.1186/s40795-022-00568-x.


Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been found to associated with numerous skeletal and non-skeletal diseases including Diabetes Mellitus. Insulin Resistance (IR) is considered as one of the primary reasons of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The association between vitamin D deficiency and IR has been extensively explore in previous studies, but none of them focused on Indian adolescents, and none of them used the TyG index as IR marker. Hence, this population-based cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) assessed using the Triglycerides Glucose Index (TyG index) and vitamin D measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D).

Methods: For this study, we utilized data from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey (CNNS, 2016-18). The study is based on a sample size of 10,167 adolescents aged 10-19 years. The TyG index cut-off value of 4.65 was used to classify IR. We examined associations between the TyG index and serum 25(OH)D using multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Odds of Insulin Resistance among vitamin D deficient/insufficient adolescents were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: A significant negative association was found between serum 25(OH)D and the TyG index, where a 10% increase in serum 25(OH)D was associated with 0.56 (95% CI = -0.67, -0.45) unit decrement in the TyG index. The odds of having IR were 90% higher among vitamin D deficient adolescents (OR: 1.90; 95% CI = 1.62-2.23) compared to adolescents with adequate levels of vitamin D. The association between vitamin D deficiency and IR was independent of sex; in other words, the association between vitamin D and IR was significant in both the sexes.

Conclusion: Independent of sex, this study found a significant inverse association between vitamin D and insulin resistance in Indian adolescents. The findings of this study highlight the utility of TyG index and the importance of vitamin D in lowering the risk of T2DM in future generations of the country.

Keywords: 25 hydroxyvitamin D; India; Insulin resistance; TyG Index; Vitamin D.