Biosynthesis of Silver Chloride Nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) from Extreme Halophiles and Evaluation of Their Biological Applications

Curr Microbiol. 2022 Jul 26;79(9):266. doi: 10.1007/s00284-022-02970-x.


The biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) has gained an overwhelming interest due to their biological applications. However, NPs synthesis by pigmented extreme halophiles remains underexplored. The NPs synthesis using pigmented halophiles is inexpensive and less toxic than other processes. In this study, pigmented halophilic microorganisms (n = 77) were screened to synthesize silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) with silver nitrate as metal precursors, and their biological applications were assessed. The synthesis of AgCl-NPs was possible using the crude extract from cellular lysis (CECL) of six extreme halophiles. Two of the AgCl-NPs viz. AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs synthesized by the CECL of Haloferax alexandrinus RK_AK2 and Haloferax lucentense RK_MY6, respectively, exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. The surface plasmon resonance of the AgCl-NPs was determined with UV spectroscopy. XRD analysis of AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs confirmed the presence of silver in the form of chlorargyrite (silver chloride) having a cubic structure. The crystallite size of AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs, estimated with the Scherrer formula, was 115.81 nm and 137.50 nm. FTIR analysis verified the presence of diverse functional groups. Dynamic light-scattering analysis confirmed that the average size distribution of NPs was 71.02 nm and 117.36 nm for AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs, respectively, with monodisperse nature. The functional group in 1623-1641 cm-1 indicated the presence of protein β-sheet structure and shifting of amino and hydroxyl groups from the pigmented CECL, which helps in capping and stabilizing nanoparticles. The study provides evidence that CECL of Haloferax species can rapidly synthesize NPs with unique characteristics and biological applications.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / metabolism
  • Chlorides / pharmacology
  • Halobacteriales* / metabolism
  • Metal Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts
  • Silver Compounds / chemistry
  • Silver Compounds / metabolism
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Chlorides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Silver Compounds
  • silver chloride