Coronary anomalies associated with ventricular septal defect

Heart Vessels. 2023 Feb;38(2):255-264. doi: 10.1007/s00380-022-02144-6. Epub 2022 Jul 26.


Coronary anomalies encompass different conditions in terms of anomalous origin, coursing, and branching, which are occasionally associated with congenital heart disease. This study aimed to explore coronary anomalies associated with ventricular septal defect that was a stereotypical congenital heart disease. We retrospectively reviewed angiographic findings in patients with ventricular septal defect who required corrective surgery, and identified coronary abnormalities, including anomalous origin, coursing, and branching of coronary arteries based on angiography. We studied the prevalence and types of coronary anomalies among them. A total of 998 patients with ventricular septal defect was studied. Age and weight were 2.0 (2.1-15.2) months and 5.7 (4.1-8.7) kg, respectively. There were 115 patients (12%) with syndrome or genetic disorder, and 34 patients (3%) with extracardiac major organ anomalies. The overall prevalence of coronary anomalies was 6.2%. All coronary anomalies were anomalous origin and coursing, among 3 patients accompanied anomalous intrinsic coronary anatomy. Originating within aortic root above the Valsalva sinus was the most common coronary anomaly. Coronary anomalies were independently correlated with bicuspid aortic valve (odds ratio [OR]: 8.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-23.4) and persistent left superior caval vein (OR: 5.02, 95% CI: 1.93-11.7). We showed the possibility that minor cardiac variants, such as bicuspid aortic valve and persistent left superior caval vein, contribute to higher prevalence of coronary anomalies in patients with ventricular septal defect.

Keywords: Bicuspid aortic valve; Congenital heart disease; Coronary artery disease; High take-off coronary artery; Left superior vena cava; Ventricular septal defect.

MeSH terms

  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease* / complications
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies* / complications
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Vessel Anomalies* / epidemiology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular* / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vena Cava, Superior / abnormalities