Physicochemical determinants of incompatibility and instability in injectable drug solutions and admixtures

Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978 Oct;35(10):1213-22.


Several physicochemical conditions or phenomena most commonly causing incompatibility, instability or related difficulties in parenteral drug solutions and admixtures are reviewed. The following factors involved in chemical incompatibilities are reviewed: concentration, pH, acid-base character, reduction-oxidation, photolysis, epimerization, temperature, dextrose catalysis and hydrolysis. The following factors involved in visual incompatibilities are discussed: pH, acid-base character, solvent system, color change, complexation, adsorption and adherence, dissolution rate, salting-out and leaching, and foaming. Pharmacists may recognize, predict and avoid parenteral imcompatibilities based on their experience, an understanding of physicochemical principles and reference to pertinent publications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Drug Combinations*
  • Drug Incompatibility*
  • Drug Stability*
  • Injections
  • Solutions*


  • Drug Combinations
  • Solutions