Muscle Fiber Composition Changes after Selective Nerve Innervation

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 16;23(14):7856. doi: 10.3390/ijms23147856.


Facial nerve paralysis interferes with mimetic muscle function. To reconstruct natural facial movement, free muscle flaps are transplanted as new muscles. However, it is difficult to maintain resting tonus. A dual innervation technique in which other nerves such as the hypoglossal nerve or contralateral facial nerve are added is often applied. Using 10-week-old rats (n = 10), the masseteric and hypoglossal nerves were cut, and the distal stump of the masseteric nerve and the proximal stump of the hypoglossal nerve were then sutured (suture group). In the other group, the masseteric nerve was cut and cauterized (cut group). Immunohistochemistry and microarray were performed on the extracted masseter muscle. The immunohistochemistry results suggested that the muscles in the suture group obtained oxidative characteristics. The microarray showed the genes involved in mitochondrial function, including Perm1. In summary, our data support the validity of the dualinnervation technique for facial paralysis treatment.

Keywords: dualinnervation; facial paralysis; masseter muscle; muscle fiber type.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Facial Muscles / innervation
  • Facial Nerve*
  • Facial Paralysis* / surgery
  • Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery
  • Hypoglossal Nerve / transplantation
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal
  • Rats