The constant search for new pharmacologically active compounds, especially those that do not exhibit toxic effects, intensifies the interest in plant-based ingredients and their potential use in pharmacotherapy. One of the plants that has great therapeutic potential is Cannabis sativa L., a source of the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), namely cannabidiol (CBD), which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and cannabigerol (CBG)-a biologically active compound that is present in much smaller quantities. CBG is generated during the non-enzymatic decarboxylation of cannabigerolic acid, a key compound in the process of biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids and consequently the precursor to various phytocannabinoids. By interacting with G-protein-coupled receptors, CBG exhibits a wide range of biological activities, inter alia, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal activities, regulation of the redox balance, and neuromodulatory effects. Due to the wide spectrum of biological activities, CBG seems to be a very promising compound to be used in the treatment of diseases that require multidirectional pharmacotherapy. Moreover, it is suggested that due to the relatively rapid metabolism of cannabigerol, determination of the concentration of the phytocannabinoid in blood or oral fluid can be used to determine cannabis use. Therefore, it seems obvious that new therapeutic approaches using CBG can be expected.
Keywords: Cannabis sativa L.; biological activity; biosynthesis; cannabigerol; cannabigerol-type group; pharmacokinetics.