Agaricus is a genus of fungi in the family Agaricaceae, with several highly priced edible and medicinal species. Here we describe Agaricus macrochlamys, a new species, in A. sect. Arvenses, sympatric and morphologically cryptic with the edible and medicinally cultivated mushroom, A. subrufescens. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. macrochlamys is closely related to A. subrufescens, and that A. fiardii is a new synonym of A. subrufescens. Despite being morphologically cryptic, A. macrochlamys can be distinguished from A. subrufescens by several ITS and tef1α species-specific markers and a 4-bp insertion in the tef1α sequence. Furthermore, A. subrufescens is a cosmopolitan species, while A. macrochlamys distribution is so far restricted to Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and the United States.
Keywords: Agaricaceae; Agaricus subg. flavoagaricus; Caribbean; almond mushrooms; neotropics; phylogeny; taxonomy.