Embolization of Recurrent Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations by Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx®) in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: Safety and Efficacy

J Pers Med. 2022 Jun 30;12(7):1091. doi: 10.3390/jpm12071091.


Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term safety and efficacy of embolization with Onyx® for recurrent pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

Methods: In total, 45 consecutive patients (51% women, mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with HHT referred to a reference center for treatment of recurrent PAVM were retrospectively included from April 2014 to July 2021. Inclusion criteria included evidence of PAVM recurrence on CT or angiography, embolization using Onyx® and a minimal 1-year-follow-up CT or angiography. Success was defined based on the standard of reference criteria on unenhanced CT or pulmonary angiography if a recurrence was suspected. PAVMs were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. The absence of safety distance, as defined by a too-short distance for coil/plug deployment, i.e., between 0.5 and 1 cm, between the proximal extremity of the primary embolic material used and a healthy upstream artery branch, was reported.

Results: In total, 70 PAVM were analyzed. Mean (SD) follow-up was 3 (1.3) years. Safety distance criteria were missing in 33 (47%) PAVMs. All procedures were technically successful, with a short-term occlusion rate of 100% using a mean (SD) of 0.6 (0.5) mL of Onyx®. The long-term occlusion rate was 60%. No immediate complication directly related to embolization was reported, nor was any severe long-term complication such as strokes or cerebral abscesses.

Conclusions: In HHT, treatment of recurrent PAVM with Onyx® showed satisfactory safety and efficacy, with an immediate occlusion rate of 100% and a long-term rate of 60%.

Keywords: Rendu–Osler–Weber disease; arteriovenous malformations; embolization; hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; thorax.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.