Retinal Delivery of the Protein Kinase C-β Inhibitor Ruboxistaurin Using Non-Invasive Nanoparticles of Polyamidoamine Dendrimers

Pharmaceutics. 2022 Jul 11;14(7):1444. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14071444.


Ruboxistaurin (RBX) is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agent that is used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and is mainly given intravitreally. To provide a safe and effective method for RBX administration, this study was designed to develop RBX nanoparticles using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer generation 5 for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Drug loading efficiency, and in vitro release of proposed complexes of RBX: PAMAM dendrimers were determined and the complexation ratio that showed the highest possible loading efficiency was selected. The drug loading efficiency (%) of 1:1, 2.5:1, and 5:1 complexes was 89.2%, 96.4%, and 97.6%, respectively. Loading capacities of 1:1, 2.5:1, and 5:1 complexes were 1.6%, 4.0%, and 7.2% respectively. In comparison, the 5:1 complex showed the best results in the aforementioned measurements. The in vitro release studies showed that in 8 h, the RBX release from 1:1, 2.5:1, and 5:1 complexes was 37.5%, 35.9%, and 77.0%, respectively. In particular, 5:1 complex showed the highest drug release. In addition, particle size measurements showed that the diameter of empty PAMAM dendrimers was 214.9 ± 8.5 nm, whereas the diameters of loaded PAMAM dendrimers in 1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1 complexes were found to be 461.0 ± 6.4, 482.4 ± 12.5, and 420.0 ± 7.1 nm, respectively. Polydispersity index (PDI) showed that there were no significant changes in the PDI between the free and loaded PAMAM dendrimers. The zeta potential measurements showed that the free and loaded nanoparticles possessed neutral charges due to the presence of anionic and cationic terminal structures. Furthermore, the safety of this formulation was apparent on the viability of the MIO-M1 cell lines. This nanoformulation will improve the therapeutic outcomes of anti-VEGF therapy and the bioavailability of RBX to prevent vision loss in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; nanoparticles; polyamidoamine dendrimers; protein kinase C-β inhibitor; ruboxistaurin.