BK virus maintains a latent infection that is ubiquitous in humans. It has a propensity for reactivation in the setting of a dysfunctional cellular immune response and is frequently encountered in kidney transplant recipients. Screening for the virus has been effective in preventing progression to nephropathy and graft loss. However, it can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In this in-depth state-of-the-art review, we will discuss the history of the virus, virology, epidemiology, cellular response, pathogenesis, methods of screening and diagnosis, evidence-based treatment strategies, and upcoming therapeutics, along with the issue of re-transplantation in patients.
Keywords: BK virus; kidney injury; kidney transplantation; nephropathy; viremia.