Objective: The extent to which weight loss contributes to increases in insulin sensitivity (IS) and β-cell function after surgical or medical intervention has not been directly compared in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Methods: The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study included adults in the Beta-Cell Restoration Through Fat Mitigation Study (n = 88 randomized to laparoscopic gastric banding or metformin [MET]) and the Adult Medication Study (n = 267 randomized to placebo, MET, insulin glargine/MET, or liraglutide + MET [L + M]). IS and β-cell responses were measured at baseline and after 12 months by modeling of oral glucose tolerance tests and during arginine-stimulated hyperglycemic clamps. Linear regression models assessed differences between and within treatments over time.
Results: BMI decreased in all treatment groups, except placebo, at 12 months. IS increased in all arms except placebo and was inversely correlated with changes in BMI. L + M was the only treatment arm that enhanced multiple measures of β-cell function independent of weight loss. Insulin secretion decreased in the laparoscopic gastric banding arm proportional to increases in IS, with no net benefit on β-cell function.
Conclusions: Reducing demand on the β-cell by improving IS through weight loss does not reverse β-cell dysfunction. L + M was the only treatment that enhanced β-cell function.
© 2022 The Obesity Society.