The Effects of Imeglimin on the Daily Glycemic Profile Evaluated by Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Retrospective, Single-Center, Observational Study

Diabetes Ther. 2022 Sep;13(9):1635-1643. doi: 10.1007/s13300-022-01298-w. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Abstract

Introduction: Imeglimin is a novel antidiabetic drug that amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and improves insulin sensitivity. Several randomized clinical studies have shown the efficacy of imeglimin for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to evaluate the short-term effects and safety of imeglimin in terms of glycemic control, as assessed by intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM).

Methods: This retrospective and observational study of 32 patients who were administered imeglimin in addition to existing treatment regimens was designed to evaluate glycemic profiles. The patients were monitored for more than 4 weeks, including the day of starting imeglimin. The changes in glycemic indices, including mean glucose level, coefficient of variation (CV), time in range (TIR) and time above range (TAR), before and after imeglimin administration were analyzed, and data on adverse effects were collected by interview.

Results: Imeglimin administration significantly improved the mean values of glucose (from 159.0 ± 27.5 mg/dL to 141.7 ± 22.1 mg/dL; p < 0.001), TIR (from 67.9 ± 17.0% to 79.5 ± 13.3%; p < 0.001) and TAR (from 29.4 ± 17.5% to 17.9 ± 13.7%; p < 0.001) and tended to improve CV (from 29.0 ± 6.1 to 27.4 ± 5.58; p = 0.058). The curves of 24-h mean glucose level for all 32 subjects were shifted downward from the baseline after imeglimin administration. The high mean glucose level, high TAR, low TIR, low body mass index and low C-peptide were related to the efficacy of imeglimin for glycemic control. The main adverse effects were gastrointestinal disorders, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased in cases receiving a combination of imeglimin plus insulin or a glinide agent.

Conclusion: Imeglimin clearly shifted the daily glucose profile into an appropriate range in Japanese T2D patients, indicating improvement of short-term glycemic control. Imeglimin is thought to be a promising therapeutic agent for T2D patients, especially those with a low insulin secretory capacity, which is a common phenotype in East-Asian subjects with glucose intolerance.

Keywords: Glucose profile; Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; Imeglimin; Intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring; Time in range; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.