China has basically controlled the COVID-19 epidemic as a result of widespread vaccination and other containment strategies, despite localized outbreaks, as of September 2021. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines among Chinese small-town residents to provide suggestions for public health policy. Residents who were vaccinated against COVID-19 were asked to complete a paper questionnaire on KAP in Xidian, Zhejiang. The knowledge questionnaire consisted of 12 questions regarding COVID-19 and 12 questions regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Attitude and practice evaluation included agreement on the eventual control of COVID-19 and having recently worn a mask outside. Of 405 survey responders, 52.3% were male, 71.4% had middle school education or less, and 59.0% engaged in physical labor as an occupation. The correct answer rates of the COVID-19 section and the vaccine section were 79.2% and 71.7%, respectively. Age groups of 18 to 29 years and > 50 years, occupations of physical labor and unemployment, and primary school education and less were associated with lower knowledge scores. The majority of participants (91.6%) believed that COVID-19 will eventually be controlled, whereas women, students, and patients with chronic held relatively negative attitudes toward epidemic control. Most participants (87.4%) wore masks outside recently. In conclusion, Chinese small-town residents have a medium level of knowledge regarding COVID-19 and vaccines, hold positive attitudes, and have appropriate practices. Health education should be provided to the target populations to enrich their knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccines, and to improve their attitudes toward epidemic control.