Variation in Susceptibility to Permethrin in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans Populations in the Great Lakes Region of the United States

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2022 Sep 1;38(3):188-197. doi: 10.2987/22-7062.


Two Culex pipiens form Pipiens colony strains and a field population of Cx. restuans from Michigan were susceptible and a Cx. pipiens form Molestus colony strain was comparatively less susceptible to a dose of 43 μg/ml of permethrin in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays. Using this diagnostic dose and these populations as controls, adult female Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans were reared from egg rafts from 28 sites in Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Tested mosquitoes showed high mortality in populations from 12 sites, less mortality (90-96%) at 9 sites, and less than 90% mortality from 7 sites during 30-min exposures. However, all tested populations showed 97-100% mortality at 60 min, indicating low phenotypic penetrance of resistance factors. These results indicate variation in susceptibility to permethrin in populations of West Nile virus vectors in the Great Lakes region of the United States, with evidence of modest resistance at 7 of 28 (25%) of the sampled populations.

Keywords: Culex pipiens; Culex restuans; Bottle bioassay; permethrin; resistance; susceptibility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Culex*
  • Female
  • Great Lakes Region
  • Mosquito Vectors
  • Permethrin
  • United States
  • West Nile virus*


  • Permethrin