Perspectives in noninvasive imaging for chronic coronary syndromes

Int J Cardiol. 2022 Oct 15:365:19-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.07.038. Epub 2022 Jul 25.


Both the latest European guidelines on chronic coronary syndromes and the American guidelines on chest pain have underlined the importance of noninvasive imaging to select patients to be referred to invasive angiography. Nevertheless, although coronary stenosis has long been considered the main determinant of inducible ischemia and symptoms, growing evidence has demonstrated the importance of other underlying mechanisms (e.g., vasospasm, microvascular disease, energetic inefficiency). The search for a pathophysiology-driven treatment of these patients has therefore emerged as an important objective of multimodality imaging, integrating "anatomical" and "functional" information. We here provide an up-to-date guide for the choice and the interpretation of the currently available noninvasive anatomical and/or functional tests, focusing on emerging techniques (e.g., coronary flow velocity reserve, stress-cardiac magnetic resonance, hybrid imaging, functional-coronary computed tomography angiography, etc.), which could provide deeper pathophysiological insights to refine diagnostic and therapeutic pathways in the next future.

Keywords: CCTA; Cardiac magnetic resonance; Echocardiography; Imaging; Myocardial ischemia; Nuclear imaging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Computed Tomography Angiography
  • Coronary Angiography / methods
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnosis
  • Coronary Stenosis*
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial* / physiology
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Syndrome