The characteristics and prognostic significance of the SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene in hematological malignancies: A systematic review

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Jul 29;101(30):e29294. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000029294.


Background: The SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene resulting from chromosomal del(9)(q34.11q34.13) or t(9;9) (q34;q34) has been found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloid sarcoma (MS). Furthermore, the SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene has been found in the T-ALL cell line LOUCY and the AML line MEGAL. The common features of these cases are insensitivity to chemotherapy and poor prognosis. We reviewed the characteristics and prognostic significance of the SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene in hematological malignancies.

Methods: This systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. With the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we summarized all of the papers and performed a statistical analyses.

Results: In general, the SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene is very rare in adult acute leukemia, more frequently found in T-ALL than in other types of leukemia, and more often in males. Flow cytometry data indicated that the markers CD34, CD33, CD13, and CD7 were common in SET-CAN/NUP214 positive acute leukemia, including ALL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and arrays are important methods for detecting the fusion gene in newly diagnosed patients and can detect chromosomal del(9)(q34) will be detected. The chromosomal karyotype may be normal or complex, and, in terms of survival analysis, transplantation results in a better prognosis than chemotherapy alone.

Conclusions and implications of key findings: The presence of SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene may be a Minimal Residual Disease of early recurrence, and it might be a poor indicator of outcome.

Limitations: The mechanism, clinical characteristics, therapy and prognosis of the SET-CAN/NUP214 fusion gene in hematological malignancies require further research.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Hematologic Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Histone Chaperones / genetics
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / genetics
  • Male
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins / genetics
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism*
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma* / genetics
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma* / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Histone Chaperones
  • NUP214 protein, human
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
  • SET-CAN fusion protein, human
  • Transcription Factors