Introduction: Information on morbidity-related productivity losses attributable to cigarette smoking, an important component of the economic burden of cigarette smoking, is limited. This study fills this gap by estimating these costs in the U.S. and by state.
Methods: A human capital approach was used to estimate the cost of the morbidity-related productivity losses (absenteeism, presenteeism, household productivity, and inability to work) attributable to cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥18 years in the U.S. and by state. A combination of data, including the 2014-2018 National Health Interview Survey, 2018 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2018 value of daily housework, and literature-based estimate of lost productivity while at work (presenteeism), was used. Costs were estimated for 2018, and all analyses were conducted in 2021.
Results: Estimated total cost of morbidity-related productivity losses attributable to cigarette smoking in the U.S. in 2018 was $184.9 billion. Absenteeism, presenteeism, home productivity, and the inability to work accounted for $9.4 billion, $46.8 billion, $12.8 billion, and $116.0 billion, respectively. State-level total costs ranged from $291 million to $16.9 billion with a median cost of $2.7 billion.
Conclusions: The cost of morbidity-related productivity losses attributable to cigarette smoking in the U.S. and in each state was substantial in 2018 and varied across the states. These estimates can guide public health policymakers and practitioners planning and evaluating interventions designed to alleviate the burden of cigarette smoking at the state and national levels.
Published by Elsevier Inc.