Synthesis and Evaluation of Finasteride-Loaded HPMC-Based Nanogels for Transdermal Delivery: A Versatile Nanoscopic Platform

Biomed Res Int. 2022 Jul 19:2022:2426960. doi: 10.1155/2022/2426960. eCollection 2022.


Herein, we report nanogels comprising diverse feed ratio of polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), monomer acrylic acid (AA), and cross-linker methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) fabricated for transdermal delivery of finasteride (FIN). Free radical solution polymerization method with subsequent condensation was employed for the synthesis using ammonium per sulfate (APS) and sodium hydrogen sulfite (SHS) as initiators. Carbopol-940 gel (CG) was formulated as assisting platform to deliver FIN nanogels transdermally. Developed formulations were evaluated by several in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo parameters such as particle size and charge distribution analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractogram (XRD), rheological testing, in vitro swelling and drug release, and ex vivo skin permeation, irritation, and toxicity assessment. The results endorsed the nanogel formation (117.3 ± 29.113 nm), and the impact of synthesizing method was signified by high yield of nanogels (≈91%). Efficient response for in vitro swelling and FIN release was revealed at pH 5.5 and 7.4. Skin irritation and toxicity assessment ensured the biocompatibility of prepared nanocomposites. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the developed nanogels were stable with excellent drug permeation profile across skin.

Publication types

  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Drug Liberation
  • Finasteride* / pharmacology
  • Hypromellose Derivatives
  • Nanogels
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared


  • Nanogels
  • Hypromellose Derivatives
  • Finasteride