Background: Race and ethnicity are major considerations in the incidence, management, and long-term outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the United States, but there is limited existing comparative data.
Methods: We assembled a registry in a health system serving Bronx, NY of STEMI patients from 2008-2014 and analyzed differences in presentation, treatment and mortality between Hispanic/Latino (H/L), non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and non-Hispanic White (NHW). Upon discharge post-treatment for STEMI, all patients were followed for a median of 4.4 years (interquartile range 2.5, 6.0). Out of 966 STEMI patients, mean age was 61 years, 46% were H/L and 65% were male. H/Ls and NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus than their NHW counterparts, coinciding with a lower socioeconomic status (SES).
Results: The number of critically diseased vessels found at cardiac catheterization and mean troponin levels did not vary by race-ethnicity; neither did the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death. However, age-sex adjusted rates of general hospital readmission were higher in NHBs vs NHWs (HR 1.30, P=.03). Age-sex adjusted cardiovascular readmissions rates were higher in H/Ls than NHWs (HR 1.42, P=.03). Age-sex adjusted heart failure readmissions were increased for both H/Ls (HR 2.14, P=.01) and NHBs (HR 2.12, P=.02) over NHWs.
Conclusions: Among STEMI patients, a higher prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and a lower SES was seen among NHBs and H/Ls compared to NHWs. Despite similar coronary disease severity and in-hospital death, NHBs and H/Ls had a greater risk of general, cardiovascular and heart failure readmissions post-STEMI compared to NHWs.
Keywords: Outcomes; Race-Ethnic Differences; STEMI.
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