Small Cell (Neuroendocrine) Carcinoma of the Cervix: An Analysis for 19 Cases and Literature Review

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Jul 13:12:916506. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.916506. eCollection 2022.


Cervical SCNEC is a rare and highly malignant invasive tumor. The incidence is low, at less than 5% of all cervical cancers. Moreover, most patients with small cell carcinoma are interrelated with high risk HPV (more familiar HPV 18). Compared to squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, patients of cevical SCNEC are more prone to lymph node invasion early, so the clinical manifestation is usually local or distant metastasis. We summarized the clinical features of 19 patients with cervical small cell carcinoma in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from 2012 to 2021, and retrospectively analyzed data from 1576 patients in 20 related studies and more than 50 pieces of literature in recent years by searching PubMed, Google schalor, Cochrane Library, Clinicalkey, and other databases. The collected patient data included age, clinical manifestation, TCT, HPV detection, the size and morphology of the tumor, local invasion depth, stage, lymph node status, initial treatment method, tumor-free survival, and so on. The positive rates of CGA, SYN, and CD56 in our cases were high, and NSE was a moderately sensitive index. P16 and Ki67 were the most sensitive, and all patients were positive. We found that multimodal treatment can indeed improve tumor-free survival (DFS), but the prognosis of patients is still very poor. For the early stages, our treatment principles refer to the guidelines of SGO, international gynecological cancer Cooperation (GCIG), and NCCN. We suggest a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, the general state of advanced patients is poor, whether they can tolerate the operation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, whether the operation area can remain tumor-free, and whether this treatment will prolong the survival time of patients still need to be further discussed. In order to better prolong the tumor-free survival and prognosis of patients, we need to find gene changes suitable for targeted therapy, so as to complete the clinical application of these treatment methods. Further works are needed to explore more effective therapy for cervical SCNEC.

Keywords: diagnosis; human papillomavirus; neuroendocrine carcinoma; small cell; therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine* / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine* / therapy
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell* / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell* / therapy
  • Cervix Uteri
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Papillomavirus Infections* / complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / therapy