Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 Inhibition Potentiates the Proliferation of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Delaying Cellular Senescence

Stem Cells Int. 2022 Jul 21;2022:4302992. doi: 10.1155/2022/4302992. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in tissue regeneration and stem cell therapy and are currently being tested in numerous clinical trials. Senescence-related changes in MSC properties have attracted considerable attention. Senescent MSCs exhibit a compromised potential for proliferation; senescence acts as a stress response that prevents the proliferation of dysfunctional cells by inducing an irreversible cell cycle arrest. Here, we established a senescent MSC model using senescence-associated β-galactosidase, proliferation, and cell cycle assays. We further identified novel biomarker candidates for old, senescent tonsil-derived MSCs (TMSCs) using transcriptomics. A plot of the cellular senescence pathway showed cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1; +8-fold) and CDK2 (+2-fold), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2; +2-fold) showed significantly higher expression in old TMSCs than in young TMSCs. The CDK family was shown to be related to cell cycle and proliferation, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. As replicative senescence of TMSCs, the gene and protein expression of CDK1 was significantly increased, which was further validated by inhibiting CDK1 using an inhibitor and siRNA. Taken together, we suggest that the CDK1 can be used as a selective senescence biomarker of MSCs and broaden the research criteria for senescent mechanisms.