Pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2023 Jul;308(1):63-71. doi: 10.1007/s00404-022-06718-7. Epub 2022 Aug 1.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-a most common disorder in women of reproductive age-has been described to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Despite the increased health risks for the mother (preeclampsia, lupus flare, arterial hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus and thrombotic risk when antiphospholipid antibodies are present) and fetus (miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal lupus), the majority of patients can deliver healthy neonates. With appropriate management by a multidisciplinary team, composing rheumatologists, obstetricians and neonatologists, women with SLE can achieve better pregnancy outcomes by monitoring associated predictive indicators, raising major concern for severe complications and somewhat early delivery if necessary. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in secondary infertility and pregnancy-related risk perception for lupus patients, with an emphasis on the safety of biological agents (mainly belimumab and rituximab) and traditional therapeutic regimens.

Keywords: Infertility; Pregnancy outcome; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Therapy.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / complications
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic* / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications* / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Symptom Flare Up


  • Antibodies, Antiphospholipid