Biomarkers for Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy

Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2022 Oct;19(5):346-355. doi: 10.1007/s11897-022-00569-8. Epub 2022 Aug 1.


Purpose of review: Myocarditis is a disease caused by inflammation of the heart that can progress to dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and eventually death in many patients. Several etiologies are implicated in the development of myocarditis including autoimmune, drug-induced, infectious, and others. All causes lead to inflammation which causes damage to the myocardium followed by remodeling and fibrosis. This review aims to summarize recent findings in biomarkers for myocarditis and highlight the most promising candidates.

Recent findings: Current methods of diagnosing myocarditis, including imaging and endomyocardial biopsy, are invasive, expensive, and often not done early enough to affect progression. Research is being done to find biomarkers of myocarditis that are cost-effective, accurate, and prognostically informative. These biomarkers would allow for earlier screening for myocarditis, as well as earlier treatment, and a better understanding of the disease course for specific patients. Early diagnosis of myocarditis with biomarkers may allow for prompt treatment to improve outcomes in patients.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Cardio-immunology; Inflammatory cardiomyopathy; Myocarditis.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated* / etiology
  • Heart Failure* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Myocarditis* / diagnosis
  • Myocarditis* / etiology
  • Myocardium / pathology


  • Biomarkers