10th edition. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2021.


The IDF Diabetes Atlas is an authoritative source of evidence on the prevalence of diabetes, related morbidity and mortality, as well as diabetes-related health expenditures at global, regional and national levels. The IDF Diabetes Atlas also introduces readers to the pathophysiology of diabetes, its classification and its diagnostic criteria. It presents the global picture of diabetes for different types of diabetes and populations and provides information on specific actions that can be taken, such as proven measures to prevent type 2 diabetes and best management of all forms of diabetes to avoid subsequent complications.

The credibility of diabetes estimates relies on the rigorous methods used for the selection and analysis of high-quality data sources. For every edition, the IDF Diabetes Atlas Committee – composed of thematic experts from each of the seven IDF Regions – reviews the methods underlying the IDF Diabetes Atlas estimates and projections and available data sources. The majority of the data sources used are population-based studies that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. In this edition, we have also included data from national diabetes registries. With the establishment of electronic records and national registries becoming more common, we anticipate more data like these will be featured in the future. Furthermore, information from national health surveys, including some of the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS), are used where they meet inclusion criteria. Findings of the current 10th edition confirm that diabetes is one of the fastest growing global health emergencies of the 21st century.

In 2021, it is estimated that 537 million people have diabetes, and this number is projected to reach 643 million by 2030, and 783 million by 2045. In addition, 541 million people are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance in 2021. It is also estimated that over 6.7 million people aged 20–79 will die from diabetes-related causes in 2021. The number of children and adolescents (i.e. up to 19 years old) living with diabetes increases annually. In 2021, over 1.2 million children and adolescents have type 1 diabetes. Direct health expenditures due to diabetes are already close to one trillion USD and will exceed this figure by 2030. This IDF Diabetes Atlas 10th edition also shows that hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP) affects approximately one in six pregnancies. Another cause for alarm is the consistently high percentage (45%) of people with undiagnosed diabetes, which is overwhelmingly type 2. This highlights the urgent need to improve the ability to diagnose people with diabetes, many of whom are unaware they have diabetes, and provide appropriate and timely care for all people with diabetes as early as possible.

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