Relationships among Clinical Factors and Patient-reported Outcome Measures in Adults with Convergence Insufficiency

Optom Vis Sci. 2022 Sep 1;99(9):692-701. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001929. Epub 2022 Aug 2.


Significance: When exploring relationships among clinical measures and patient-reported outcome measures in adults with convergence insufficiency, worse symptoms (Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey [CISS] score) seemed to be correlated with worse reading function domain score (Adult Strabismus-20 quality-of-life questionnaire). After treatment, improved symptoms were associated with improved reading function quality of life.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore relationships between clinical measures and patient-reported outcome measures in adults undergoing treatment for symptomatic convergence insufficiency.

Methods: In a prospective multicenter observational study, we evaluated adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (i.e., clinical measures of near exodeviation, receded near point of convergence, reduced near positive fusional vergence; CISS score ≥21). Fifty-seven participants treated with vision therapy/exercises (n = 35) or base-in prism (n = 22) were analyzed. Spearman correlation coefficients ( R ) were used to assess associations among the three clinical measures and patient-reported outcome measures (CISS, Diplopia Questionnaire, four Adult Strabismus-20 quality-of-life domains) before treatment (baseline) and after 10 weeks and 1 year. Associations were interpreted to be present when the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was moderate to strong ( R ≥ 0.4).

Results: Among multiple exploratory analyses, the only moderate to strong baseline correlation was between worse CISS and worse Adult Strabismus-20 reading function scores ( R = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.76). Regarding change in measures with treatment, the only moderate to strong correlations were between improved CISS and improved Adult Strabismus-20 reading function scores for prism at 10 weeks ( R = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.91) and 1 year ( R = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.94) and for vision therapy/exercises at 1 year ( R = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.89).

Conclusions: In exploratory analyses, we found positive correlations between CISS symptom scores and reading function quality-of-life scores. The absence of correlations between symptoms and individual clinical measures is consistent with clinical experience that, in convergence insufficiency, symptoms and clinical findings can be discordant.

Trial registration: NCT02510040.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular
  • Adult
  • Convergence, Ocular
  • Humans
  • Ocular Motility Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Ocular Motility Disorders* / therapy
  • Orthoptics
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Strabismus* / therapy
  • Vision, Binocular

Associated data