Recent findings on subjective well-being and physical, psychiatric, and social comorbidities in individuals with schizophrenia: A literature review

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep. 2022 Aug 2. doi: 10.1002/npr2.12286. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Aim: Care for people with schizophrenia is shifting the locus from long-stay mental hospitals to nonspecialized community-based settings. Knowledge on the care is not a sole property of psychiatric specialists. Community healthcare workers who do not specialize in psychiatry are recommended to learn more about schizophrenia. This review aimed to summarize recent findings on subjective well-being and physical, psychiatric, and social comorbidities in individuals with schizophrenia.

Methods: A literature review was conducted. We retrieved findings from existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses as our preferred method. When data were not available, we referred to other types of studies.

Results: As per our review, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated poor subjective well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction despite individual differences. Pharmacotherapy caused weight gain and constipation, whereas race and hospitalization might affect weight reduction. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated poor oral health, a high prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, and unique eating behaviors. Depression, sleep disorders, smoking, and alcohol and drug consumption were frequently found in the individuals. Research findings regarding problematic internet and smartphone use and stress perception were limited. Low health literacy and neglect of preventable behaviors were frequently seen in individuals with schizophrenia. They tended to be less educated, poor, unemployed, unmarried/unattached, and had poor social cognition, resulting in little social support and a small social network.

Conclusion: Retrieving recent data, we confirmed that individuals with schizophrenia had poor subjective well-being and suffer from various physical, psychiatric, and social comorbidities.

Keywords: comorbidity; epidemiology; literature review; schizophrenia; subjective well-being.

Publication types

  • Review