Genotype/phenotype correlation in 123 Chinese patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Eur J Med Genet. 2022 Oct;65(10):104573. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104573. Epub 2022 Jul 31.


Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystemic neurocutaneous disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance. We performed mutation analyses on 123 Chinese patients with "definite TSC" according to the latest diagnostic criteria. Pathogenic / likely-pathogenic variants were identified in 72.2% of all index patients (70/97), in which 35.7% (25/70) had TSC1 variants and 64.3% (45/70) had TSC2 variants. 84.5% (82/97) cases were sporadic and 15.5% (15/97) cases were familial. 62 unique variants were reported, in which 41.9% (26/62) were novel. Male patients had significantly more subependymal nodules (p=0.029) than females, whereas renal angiomyolipoma (p=0.032) occurred predominantly in females. Sporadic cases also had more renal angiomyolipoma (p=0.004), cortical tubers (p=0.008), hypopigmented macules (p=0.018) and fibrous cephalic plaques (p=0.028) than cases with known inheritance. Patients with TSC2 pathogenic variants were more likely to have mental retardation (p<0.001), cardiac rhabdomyoma (p=0.004), renal angiomyolipoma (p=0.006) and facial angiofibromas (p=0.026) than those with TSC1 pathogenic variants, while mutation-negative cases showed a mixed phenotype between those with TSC1 and TSC2 variants. There were no significant phenotypic differences between patients with and without TSC1/TSC2 variants, but TSC2 missense and in-frame variants were associated with higher frequencies of mental retardation (P<0.001), renal angiomyolipoma (p=0.001), cardiac rhabdomyoma (p=0.012) and facial angiofibroma (p=0.021) than those with TSC1 frameshift and splice site variants. Furthermore, a higher frequency of mental retardation (p=0.013) was observed in patients with TSC2 missense and in-frame variants than those with frameshift and splice site variants. All 14 antenatal-onset patients had cardiac rhabdomyoma. They had fewer seizures (p=0.028) than patients with paediatric-onset, but were more likely to have mental retardation (p=0.035) than individuals with adult-onset disease. Generally, paediatric-onset patients had more neurological manifestations, while initial presentations of adult-onset TSC were more diverse.

Keywords: Genotype/phenotype correlations; Mutation analysis; Tuberous sclerosis complex.

MeSH terms

  • Angiomyolipoma* / genetics
  • China
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability*
  • Kidney Neoplasms*
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Pregnancy
  • Rhabdomyoma* / genetics
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein / genetics
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein / genetics
  • Tuberous Sclerosis* / genetics
  • Tuberous Sclerosis* / pathology
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Protein
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins