National, sub-national, and risk-attributed burden of thyroid cancer in Iran from 1990 to 2019

Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 2;12(1):13231. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-17115-0.


An updated exploration of the burden of thyroid cancer across a country is always required for making correct decisions. The objective of this study is to present the thyroid cancer burden and attributed burden to the high Body Mass Index (BMI) in Iran at national and sub-national levels from 1990 to 2019. The data was obtained from the GBD 2019 study estimates. To explain the pattern of changes in incidence from 1990 to 2019, decomposition analysis was conducted. Besides, the attribution of high BMI in the thyroid cancer DALYs and deaths were obtained. The age-standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 1.57 (95% UI: 1.33-1.86) in 1990 and increased 131% (53-191) until 2019. The age-standardized prevalence rate of thyroid cancer was 30.19 (18.75-34.55) in 2019 which increased 164% (77-246) from 11.44 (9.38-13.85) in 1990. In 2019, the death rate, and Disability-adjusted life years of thyroid cancer was 0.49 (0.36-0.53), and 13.16 (8.93-14.62), respectively. These numbers also increased since 1990. The DALYs and deaths attributable to high BMI was 1.91 (0.95-3.11) and 0.07 (0.04-0.11), respectively. The thyroid cancer burden and high BMI attributed burden has increased from 1990 to 2019 in Iran. This study and similar studies' results can be used for accurate resource allocation for efficient management and all potential risks' modification for thyroid cancer with a cost-conscious view.

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index
  • Global Burden of Disease*
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Risk Factors
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / epidemiology